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Ancient North Africa

The Nok Culture
Ancient West Africa
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However, no one has been able to determine what caused their decline and collapse. The first true state in West Africa that we know of appeared with the rise of the Kingdom of Ghana around CE, at the same time the Nok culture was fading. This Kingdom of Ghana was located in modern-day Mauritania and Mali; the modern nation of Ghana is not related to the old Kingdom. Much like the Nok, Ghana did not provide any works of writing in their own language. Much of what we know of the Kingdom comes from the accounts of Arab traders who often visited the region and wrote of the people.

Ghana rose to power because of its position on the Trans-Sahara Trade Network, and specialized in the production of gold and salt-- goods that were in high demand throughout the Mediterranean world. The King of Ghana appears to have ruled over the core of his Kingdom and also had a number of lesser kings that were his vassals. A vassal is a ruler who is closely allied with and carries out the will of a stronger state. Ghana appears to have fallen around the year CE; it is thought that this was the result of changing trade routes, which no longer went through the kingdom, as well as the opening up of newer, richer, goldmines outside of the territory of Ghana.

It is known that the Kingdom of Tekrur, once a vassal of Ghana, became an independent power in its own right during this era.

Get access risk-free for 30 days, just create an account. The Kingdom of Tekrur was located in modern day Senegal and Mauritania and its capital was the city of Tekrur, which gave its name to the entire state. For much of its history, Tekrur was closely associated with Ghana and the kings may have been vassals for some period of time.

In many ways, Tekrur paralleled the development of Ghana; both kingdoms built their wealth upon the trade Trans-Saharan Trade Network, supplying salt, gold and other goods to Arabic traders that came from North Africa. Some believe that Tekrur was largely populated by members of the Serer peoples , a group that was influential throughout the region.

However, much like Ghana, Tekrur did not leave any written records of their own and so we have to rely upon the accounts of Arabic traders and archeologists to tell us about their society and history. Relations between the Arabic traders and Tekrur were strong, and the rulers of Tekrur adopted Islam as their official faith, as it was the main religion in the region. As Ghana began to weaken, Tekrur took advantage and soon became a regional rival, with both kingdoms regularly fighting. When Ghana finally collapsed around the year CE, Tekrur filled the vacuum and took over much of the territory of Ghana.

By the end of the 13th century, Tekrur was conquered by the Empire of Mali , effectively marking the beginning of a new era in West African history. West Africa is a region in Africa that is bordered by the Sahara Desert in the north, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Benegal Trough in the east. This region is rich in natural resources, especially gold, ivory and salt.

The Iron Age is thought to have begun in roughly BCE, and the process of smelting iron may have been learned from the Egyptians. The Nok left behind no writings and much of what we know of them was discovered by archeologists in the 20th century. They were best known for their creation of terracotta human figurines that were life-sized. The first true state in the region was the Kingdom of Ghana , which rose to prominence because of its control of gold mines and its position on the Trans-Saharan Trade Network.

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